International Unicycling Federation Official Rules
version from 6 August 1996
PREFACE: Attention must be drawn to the safety of the players and spectators.
Thus, the safety rules have to be obeyed strictly and all equipment must be in
good condition. These rules cannot cover every situation. Teams have to agree
on a specific amount of elbow-room before playing. The different backgrounds of
the players and the conditions of the location have to be considered. Fairness
of everyone involved is vital.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The field has a length of 35 to 45 meters and a breadth of 20
to 25 meters. It is surrounded by barriers. The corners are rounded or beveled.
The posts are 2.50 m in from the ends of the playing field (ground lines),
ensuring that the players can go behind them. The inside dimensions of goal
openings are 1.20 m high and 1.80 m wide. The goals must be made in such a way
that the ball cannot enter through the rear or sides. The goals must not have
sharp, pointed or protruding parts.
The center line divides the field into two equal halves. There is a mark in
front of each goal at a distance of 6.5 m. The goal lines connect the posts on
the ground. The corner marks are on the extension of the goal lines, 1 m in
from each side line. The 6.5 m lines are parallel to the goal lines and run
through the 6.5 m marks. The goal areas are between the 6.5 m lines and the
ends of the field.
A team consists of 5 players (plus substitutes). Substituting one player for
another is possible at every interruption of the game if indicated to the
referee. Each player can be the goal keeper at any time. The goal keeper has no
special rights. To take part in a game, a team must have at least 3 players.
Shoes must be worn. All players of a team must wear tricots of the same color.
The color must be clearly different from the opponent's color. At tournaments
and other large events each team should have two different colored sets of
tricots. Clothing suggestions for comfort and safety:
For international competitions, the maximum wheel size is 24". The
unicycles must not have sharp or protruding parts anywhere which might cause
injuries. This refers especially to quick-release levers and bolts. The pedals
must be plastic or rubber.
All sticks legal for playing ice-hockey (apart from those for the goalkeeper)
can be used. Cracked or splintered sticks must be taped or repaired before
play. An upper end made of rubber is recommended.
The type of ball used depends on the region. In some areas a "dead"
tennis ball that reaches 30 to 50 percent of its original height after bouncing
onto concrete is used. In other areas street hockey balls are used. For
international competitions, the choice is made by the hosting organization if
the opposing teams do not agree on which ball to use. The chosen type of ball
must be announced well in advance of the competition, and must be obtainable in
all participating countries.
In every instance of a violation of the rules the referee must penalize the
offending team, unless the referee decides not to interrupt the game
(advantage). The referee must start the game after any interruption.
The free shot is executed from the point where the violation was done.
Exception: If a team gets a free shot within the opponents' goal area, the free
shot is done from the closest corner mark (corner shot). The free shot is
indirect. The player executing the free shot may only touch the ball once. Then
another player has to touch the ball. Opposing players must keep a distance
with their unicycles and their sticks of at least 2 m from the ball.
If legal playing would have led to a direct chance to score a goal, a "6.5
m" is given. This includes fouls outside the goal area. The ball is placed
at the 6.5 m mark. A player of the defending team goes to the goal. The other
team chooses a player to shoot the 6.5 m. All other players must leave the goal
area. After the referee's whistle the goal keeper must ride the unicycle freely
and not rest on the goal. The attacking player has 3 seconds to make one shot.
If no goal is scored, play continues as soon as the ball touches the post, the
keeper touches the ball or the ball crosses the extended goal line.
The referee can send a player off the field for 2 minutes, 5 minutes or for the
remainder of the game. This is done in the case of unsporting behavior or
intentional, dangerous disregard of the rules. While a player is in the penalty
box, the team may not substitute a replacement for that player.
If the defending team prevents a goal from being scored through an illegal play
of the ball and if, in the opinion of the referee, the ball was traveling
directly toward the goal and would definitely have entered the goal without
being touched by another player, a penalty goal may be awarded. In this case
the attacking team is awarded a goal. If there is any doubt as to the certainty
of a goal, a 6.5 m must be awarded as described in section 4.2.
All times mentioned refer to actual playing time. The time is stopped at
interruptions. There are two 15 minute halves, separated by a 5 minute break.
The teams change sides during the break. If the game ends in a draw and a
decision is necessary, play is continued for 10 more minutes: 5 minute break
and change sides, 5 minutes of play, change sides without a break and 5 more
minutes of play. If it's still a draw, each of the 5 current players from each
team shoots a 6.5 m. If it's again still a draw, each team shoots one more 6.5
m until there is a decision.
The player has to be riding the unicycle freely. He or she may use the stick as
support but must not rest on the goal or the wall or something similar. A short
support on the wall to avoid a dismount should be tolerated by the referee. A
player who is falling off the unicycle may take part in the game until touching
the ground. A player who is off the unicycle must not be an obstacle for
opponents. The player is considered an obstacle if the player, the unicycle or
stick is hit by the ball and also if an opponent cannot move around freely. The
player should remount at the same spot, but if necessary move out of the way of
The stick, the unicycle and the whole body can be used to play the ball. It all
counts as a contact. Players are not allowed to play the ball with the body
twice in a row. The ball may only be guided with the stick but not with the
body. For arms and hands see also section 7.1.
Each game period starts with a bully (face off) in which the referee drops the
ball between two opposing players onto the center mark. Playing starts when the
ball touches the ground.
After a goal, the non-scoring team gets the ball. All players must go to their
own half. The game resumes when the ball or a player of the team in possession
crosses the center line.
If the ball leaves the field, the team opposite to that of the player who last
touched it gets a free shot or a corner shot, depending where the ball went
out. A free shot is done 1 m in from the side line.
If a player moves the goal, the game is interrupted and the opposing team gets
a free shot.
If the ball gets stuck between the spokes of someone's unicycle, the opposing
team gets a free shot.
All players must take care not to endanger others. The game is contactless,
i.e., the opponents and their unicycles may not be touched. You may touch an
opponent's stick with your stick to block him. However, this contact may not be
To keep the game going, rule violations that do not influence the course of the
game should not be penalized. The following rules apply when riders come into
contact with each other:
- Cycling shorts and kneepads, or long pants
- Short shoe laces, or laces tucked in
- Helmet and dental protection
- Definitely no jewelry (watches, necklaces, earrings)
A player who holds his or her stick in a way that someone else rides over or
against it is committing a foul, regardless of intention. According to the
situation the player who was "subbed" is given either a free shot or
a 6.5 m.
If a stick gets into the spokes of an opponent, the holder of the stick is
committing a foul regardless of intention. According to the situation the
player who was "sibbed" is given a free shot or a 6.5 m.
Intentional fouls are considered to be unsporting behavior. The respective
player is sent off the field for at least 2 minutes.
Restrictions 7.1 and 7.2 are not valid if the ball is shot into one's own goal.
After a disallowed goal the defending team gets the ball.
A goal is disallowed if scored with arms or hands.
A goal is disallowed if the ball was shot from one's own half and was not
touched by anyone afterwards.
If the ball entered the goal through the net from the side or the back, e.g.,
through a hole in the net, the goal is disallowed and the opposing team gets a
A player who intentionally drops or throws his or her stick is sent off the
field for at least 2 minutes, at the discretion of the referee. Also, the
opposing team gets a 6.5 m.
The upper end of the stick must always be covered with one hand to avoid injury
to other players.
The lower end of the stick must always be below the players' hips. Each player
must take care not to hit an opponent with his or her stick, especially after a
The referee must suspend the game if an injury occurs. Afterwards, a free shot
is given to the team that was in possession of the ball at the time of the
- No player may endanger another player by forcing him to give way (e.g., to
push him toward the wall).
- A player who is idling must be evaded.
- The leading of two players riding next to each other may choose the
direction of turns. If both are evenly side by side, the one having the ball
may choose the direction.
- If two players are approaching each other directly or at an obtuse angle,
the one with the ball has the right of way.
- In all cases not mentioned above, it is up to the referee to make a
For more information, contact the Hockey Chairman of the IUF Skill Levels and
- Rolf Sander
- E.-Klausener Strasse 6
- 40789 Monheim
- e-mail: email@example.com